How does God’s eternal punishment of the wicked cohere with His love? Why does God choose to punish people in this manner? The glory of God is the answer.
Unexpected Reasons Why the Doctrine of Election is Important
Is the doctrine of election (also referred to as predestination) relevant or irrelevant for the Christian life? Is it just something that theologians argue about or is it important in shaping your character?
For many, the doctrine of election is an irrelevant doctrine, either consigned to the realm of theological pedantry or shunned for fear of causing dissent and disunity. But the doctrine of election is no mere theological dogma perpetually frozen in the realm of theory and academic debate nor is it a contentious teaching meant to divide the church. It is a glorious truth revealed to us by God in His Scriptures and touches the life of a Christian in a myriad of ways from worship to ministry to growth in godliness.
In his book Concise Theology, J.I. Packer notes the wide ranging impact of election upon the Christian life,
“The doctrine of election, like every truth about God, involves mystery and sometimes stirs controversy. But in Scripture it is a pastoral doctrine, brought in to help Christians see how great is the grace that saves them, and to move them to humility, confidence, joy, praise, faithfulness, and holiness in response.”
– J.I. Packer, Concise Theology 
Packer acknowledges the difficulties in understanding this doctrine and its potential for controversy, the reason many pastors often avoid teaching election altogether. Yet neglecting a truth that “moves” a Christian to personal humility, confidence in God, joy, praise, faithfulness and holiness suppresses an important means God uses to fuel Christian growth in these areas.
The doctrine of election, which is the teaching that God decided before creation to save some individuals from eternal damnation, is foundational to several important aspects of the Christian life. The pastor intent on proclaiming the “whole counsel of God” (Acts 20:27) and fulfilling his God ordained mandate to present his congregation perfect in Christ must recognize how the doctrine of election builds up a Christian’s character, ministry, and worship.
The Christian desiring to know God and His ways also should not neglect this doctrine as, without it, one cannot fully understand why salvation by grace truly is an undeserved gift from God.
The Doctrine of Election and the Christian’s Character
Many Christians cannot see how understanding the doctrine of election directly impacts their character. Some may feel this doctrine is a matter of speculative theological theory and therefore fundamentally detached from the needs of daily life. Others don’t see the link between what God decided in eternity past and how this choice works toward spiritual growth in the present. However, a closer examination of the following Scripture passages reveals a direct connection between the doctrine of election and the growth of a Christian into the image of Christ.
Romans 8:28-29 presents a clear connection between God’s election and Christian character. Romans 8:28 in particular is a favorite verse among Christians. It is a clear reminder that regardless of the hardships a Christian faces, God uses those tough times for his benefit. After all, Christians face difficult trials of many kinds throughout life and as a result can easily experience discouragement, doubt, and fear. A reminder of God’s sovereign power working good in the midst of difficulty is encouraging. Yet this verse is of limited benefit if a Christian doesn’t specifically understand what good God is achieving through these hardships. Clarity is found in the very next verse,
“For those whom he foreknew he also predestined to be conformed to the image of his Son”
– Romans 8:29
Here Paul says God’s goal in predestination and life’s hardship are the same: conformity to the image of Christ. Christians must notice the link between God choosing them for salvation and the development of their character. God chose people to change their character into one that is like Jesus; a process started at salvation, progressing through life, and completed in the age to come.
In particular, the doctrine of election is foundational to the development of four critical aspects of Christian character: humility, thankfulness, joy, and obedience.
Pride is a spiritual plague endemic to all mankind, an inherent character defect birthed through Adam’s rejection of God’s command in Eden (Genesis 3:6). In his natural condition, man does not believe he is entirely dependent upon God for physical and spiritual life.
Unfortunately the Christian is not immune from the corrupting effects of pride. At its worst, the independent and self-glorifying nature of pride destroys relationships in the church, tarnishes the name of Christ in an unbelieving world, and brings the opposition of God Himself (James 4:6). Every Christian experiences the damaging effects of pride to some degree.
Fortunately, Christian humility is the antidote for this destructive sin. The Bible demonstrates that the road to humility starts with an understanding of the doctrine of election.
The context of Romans 9 concerns the election of Israel. Paul’s readers wondered if God still favors Israel or had rejected them completely. The apostle responds by describing how God’s election functions and gives two illustrations from the Old Testament Scriptures.
In Romans 9:11-13, Paul shows that God’s choice of Jacob instead of Esau before the twins were born demonstrates election has nothing to do with human action. Paul writes,
“though they were not yet born and had done nothing either good or bad—in order that God’s purpose of election might continue, not because of works but because of him who calls— she was told, ‘The older will serve the younger.’ As it is written, ‘Jacob I loved, but Esau I hated.’”
– Romans 9:11-13
The election of Jacob serves as a paradigm for God’s election of every Christian for all time. Jacob contributed nothing to his election, proven by the facts that: God chose Jacob before he was born, God chose Jacob before he could do anything good or bad, and God chose Jacob on the basis of a “call” and not “works”. The example of Jacob’s election demonstrates that the basis of salvation rests entirely on God’s choice and not human merit.
Paul further explains how election works by referencing God’s decision not to have mercy on Pharaoh. Paul writes,
“For he says to Moses, ‘I will have mercy on whom I have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I have compassion.’ So then it depends not on human will or exertion, but on God, who has mercy”
– Romans 9:15-16
Paul concludes that the way God dealt with Pharaoh demonstrates that neither human choice nor human effort influences God’s decisions regarding election. Who receives God’s mercy and who doesn’t is a verdict that lies solely with God.
Wayne Grudem confirms this truth and states,
“Election is an act of God before creation in which he chooses some people to be saved, not on account of any foreseen merit in them, but only because of his sovereign good pleasure.”
– Wayne Grudem, Bible Doctrine 
Louis Berkhof concurs explaining that,
“[election] may be defined as that eternal act of God whereby He, in His sovereign good pleasure, and on account of no foreseen merit in them, chooses a certain number of men to be the recipients of special grace and of eternal salvation.”
– Louis Berkhof, Systematic Theology 
Both Grudem and Berkhom concur that election is according to God’s good pleasure. God, as a sovereign divine being, alone holds the prerogative to do whatever He wants to do concerning election.
Understanding that God makes the choice of election independent of any human merit is the foundation of Christian humility and an elixir for pride. Grudem notes that,
“It humbles us before God to think this way. It makes us realize that we have no claim on God’s grace whatsoever. Our salvation is totally due to grace alone.”
– Wayne Grudem, Bible Doctrine 
No Christian can therefore legitimately boast in his salvation as the doctrine of election puts any such false claim to rest. Some may think that growing up in a Christian family and obeying their parents entitles them to salvation. Others may believe that rejecting certain sins earns God’s favor. Yet none of these reasons influence the hand of God in election.
A Christian’s daily reflection upon God’s unmerited favor toward him will cause the seeds of humility to sprout into maturity, eroding the foundation of spiritual pride. If a Christian wants humility, he must start with recognizing God’s grace toward him in election.
Since no Christian has any right to salvation on the basis of deeds, God’s election and salvation can only be seen as a free gift and not a payment of any kind. An appropriate response to this gift is thankfulness. J.I. Packer affirms,
“Sinners choose Christ only because God chose them for this choice and moved them to it by renewing their hearts….Christians should therefore thank God for their conversion.”
– J.I. Packer, Concise Theology 
If election was a reward for foreseen human merit, thankfulness would not be a necessity. Salvation would merely consist of a fair transaction between God and man; man earns salvation and God gives it to him as payment. But as previously demonstrated, such a view of salvation and election is inconsistent with Scripture. Therefore, thankfulness is the Christian’s righteous response to God’s sovereign election.
The Bible states that genuine thankfulness to God is unique to the believer. Paul comments on the state of unbelieving man in Romans 1:21 and says, “For although they knew God, they did not honor him as God or give thanks to him.” Humans in their unredeemed state are thankless. They neither honor God nor give Him credit for creating and sustaining them.
The Christian must reject this natural tendency toward thanklessness. Understanding the doctrine of election is the answer. As a Christian meditates on God’s sovereign choice to save him, not as a wage earned but as an unconditional gift, he realizes the appropriateness for continual thankfulness.
Thankfulness is also cultivated by meditating on God’s selectivity in election. Jesus taught that, “many are called, but few are chosen” (Matthew 22:14). Realizing that he is one of the few to receive God’s electing grace, thankfulness springs to life in the Christian. He must recognize the great value of being saved from an eternity in hell and how few receive this free pardon from the just consequences of their sins. The benefits of election can hardly be understated. The more a Christian realizes what he has received, the more thankful he will become.
Election not only produces thankfulness in the Christian to God for his own salvation, but also for the salvation of fellow Christians. In both letters to the Thessalonians, Paul tells his readers that their election was a reason for his constant thanks to God.
“We give thanks to God always for all of you, constantly mentioning you in our prayers, remembering before our God and Father your work of faith and labor of love and steadfastness of hope in our Lord Jesus Christ. For we know, brothers loved by God, that he has chosen you, because our gospel came to you not only in word, but also in power and in the Holy Spirit and with full conviction”
– 1 Thessalonians 1:2-5
Paul is confident of the Thessalonians’ election because of his Spirit-empowered delivery of the gospel and their positive reception to the message. Therefore, he is continually thankful for them. Paul models a thankfulness that goes far beyond what God has done for him. Paul knows that God should receive thanks for all His works, including the salvation of other Christians.
In addition, Paul explains in his second letter to the Thessalonians that his certainty of their election is a mandate for continual thankfulness. He writes,
“But we ought always to give thanks to God for you, brothers beloved by the Lord, because God chose you as the firstfruits to be saved, through sanctification by the Spirit and belief in the truth”
– 2 Thessalonians 2:13
Often, Christians are preoccupied with what God has done for them and their thankfulness centers on themselves only. But the mature Christian who understands the significance of God’s election of others realizes that this too should result in thankfulness to God.
With this in view, the Christian knows that every believer chosen by God is a reason to give thanks. The doctrine of election thus turns the Christian heart away from a preoccupation with self towards gratitude and gladness in what God has done for others.
Joy is another character quality built on the foundation of election. When the seventy-two disciples returned to Jesus after preaching the gospel of the kingdom, they were elated that evil spirits were subject to them in Christ’s name. Yet Jesus redirected their excitement saying,
“Nevertheless, do not rejoice in this, that the spirits are subject to you, but rejoice that your names are written in heaven”
– Luke 10:20
Instead of reinforcing the disciples’ joy in the power of Jesus over the strongholds of Satan, Jesus wanted them to rejoice in their election.
Christians today often try to find joy in circumstances rather than the unchanging grace of God toward them in salvation. No wonder many Christians find their joy waxing and waning with life’s unpredictable events. The foundation of true joy is found in God’s pardoning of sinners through grace. Once a Christian grasps the enormity of this unmerited gift, joy abounds. J.I. Packer confirms,
“God owes sinners no mercy of any kind, only condemnation; so it is a wonder, and matter for endless praise, that he should choose to save any of us; and doubly so when his choice involved the giving of his own Son to suffer as sin-bearer for the elect….Knowledge of one’s election thus brings comfort and joy.”
– J.I. Packer, Concise Theology 
Understanding the doctrine of election injects a fresh flow of happiness into the distraught Christian as he focuses on the significance of what God has done for him.
Finally, the doctrine of election encourages the Christian to pursue obedience. Many have fallen into the error of thinking that election does just the opposite, that it breeds a sinful apathy towards obedience leading to abuse of God’s grace through licentious living. A misunderstanding of election may cause apathy, but the Bible is clear that God’s intent in election is conformity to the character of Christ. Jesus’ entire life was characterized by obedience to God the Father, an example Christians are called to follow.
Paul wanted his Ephesian readers to understand first of all that God elected them for holiness. Right away in his letter, Paul writes,
“Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed us in Christ with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places, even as he chose us in him before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and blameless before him”
– Ephesians 1:3-4
God intends for His chosen people to be holy, not sinful.
Paul explains this again in his epistle to the Romans, this time phrasing this holiness in terms of Christ-like character, “For those whom he foreknew he also predestined to be conformed to the image of his Son” (Romans 8:29). F.H. Klooster affirms that holiness and Christ-likeness are clear directives for the Christian,
“The elect are to be ‘conformed to the image’ of the Son (v.29); they were chosen in Christ to be ‘holy and blameless’ before him’ (Eph. 1:4). Thus the elect are exhorted to responsible Christian living…”
– F.H. Klooster, “Elect” International Standard Bible Encyclopedia 
The apostle Peter further clarifies the issue when he directly connects God’s election of his readers to their personal obedience.
“Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, To those who are elect exiles of the dispersion in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia, according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, in the sanctification of the Spirit, for obedience to Jesus Christ and for sprinkling with his blood”
– 1 Peter 1:1-2
Peter’s elect readers, and by implication all Christians, are chosen, foreknown, and sanctified for obedience. There is no hint of apathy or abusing the grace of God in election. Obedience and election go hand in hand.
One of God’s clear purposes in election is for the believer to live like Jesus, in obedience and submission to God. When the Christian recognizes this, he is motivated to fulfill the purpose God for which God has called him. God uses the doctrine of election to guide the Christian toward obedience and growth in godly disposition.
The Doctrine of Election and the Christian’s Ministry
The doctrine of election not only shapes the internal moral qualities of the Christian, it also focuses him toward the good of others. Becoming conformed to Christ goes beyond growth in personal moral character. Jesus came to serve and give his life for the benefit of others (Mark 10:45). Thus, the Christian maturing in Christ-like character focuses more and more upon what he also can do for others. This next section will explore how understanding the doctrine of election serves as a foundation for ministering to believers and unbelievers alike.
In the context of telling his Ephesian readers about God’s unconditional election towards them through grace, Paul adds, “For we are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus for good works, which God prepared beforehand, that we should walk in them” (Ephesians 2:10). Paul declares that God has chosen His people for good works. In eternity past, God decreed the selection of certain people to receive His grace and then carry out His purposes in the world through actions that benefit others. Election to salvation and good works cannot be separated.
W.S. Reid points out this connection,
“The elect of God are chosen not only for salvation, but also for service. They should have the assurance of their calling and election which gives them confidence, strength, and a sense of responsibility (2 Peter 1:10f.). This leads the Christian to a knowledge of his responsibility to serve Christ as his Lord in the world.”
– W.S. Reid, “Election” International Standard Bible Encyclopedia 
Discussions centered on the doctrine of election often focus narrowly on the benefits of salvation to the individual. God’s purposes in election extend far beyond that.
Jesus’ words at the Last Supper demonstrate the connection between election and serving others. That evening, Jesus made His purpose in choosing His disciples clear. He tells them,
“You did not choose me, but I chose you and appointed you that you should go and bear fruit and that your fruit should abide, so that whatever you ask the Father in my name, he may give it to you”
– John 15:16
This fruit involves serving others. Jesus had just demonstrated this by washing the disciples’ feet. The disciples are then to serve in the same way Jesus has served them (John 13:12-17). Jesus does not allow his disciples to self-indulgently bask in the benefits of salvation, as good as they are. As God has loved them, so must they love one another and so must they love a hostile world, even though many in that world will hate them. This command is relevant for all Jesus’ disciples of all time.
These two examples show that Christians are not chosen only to receive the benefits of saving grace for themselves. They are also called to play their part in fulfilling God’s greater purposes in the world. This involves service, the same kind of self-sacrificing service Jesus demonstrated at the Last Supper and at the cross. Every follower of Christ is appointed to bear fruit in the world, in word and deed, for the benefit of believers and unbelievers alike.
Christ-like service has many forms but a primary one is encouragement. Teaching other Christians of God’s electing grace serves as a comfort for those debilitated by doubt and fear. The apostle Paul models this teaching ministry by reminding the Thessalonians,
“God has not destined us for wrath, but to obtain salvation through our Lord Jesus Christ, who died for us so that whether we are awake or asleep we might live with him. Therefore encourage one another and build one another up, just as you are doing”
– 1 Thessalonians 5:9-11
There are two important parts to what Paul is saying. First, in referring to God’s purpose in election, the Thessalonians need to know that God has not destined them for wrath. Paul has already told them he is convinced of their election (1 Thessalonians 1:4-10). Therefore, they need not fear God’s judgment. They do not need to fear death since salvation awaits them. In this manner, Paul was able to minister comforting words to the troubled Thessalonians.
Secondly, the Thessalonians are to “encourage one another and build one another up” in the truth of God’s electing purpose. Paul’s statement clearly shows the ministerial implications for the doctrine of election. Christians must encourage one another with this doctrine. This truth builds up Christians in their faith.
For example, understanding election fights the doubts and fears one might have regarding God’s purposes. Election points to a God who is always acting for the good of those He has chosen (Romans 8:28-30). Wayne Grudem adds,
“From eternity to eternity God has acted with the good of his people in mind. But if God has always acted for our good and will in the future act for our good, Paul reasons, then will he not also in our present circumstances work every circumstance together for our good as well? In this way predestination is seen as a comfort for believers in the everyday events of life.”
– Wayne Grudem, Bible Doctrine 
Election is an encouraging truth that can anchor those swayed by doubt, fear, and anxiety.
The doctrine of election not only fights against doubts about God’s intentions, but it can encourage those fearing that their personal failures will somehow thwart God’s plans. Every Christian grieves over his personal sin. This grief, left unchecked by the truth of Scripture, can enflame doubts about the certainty of salvation. Louis Berkhof explains that,
“[the doctrine of election] is the source of rich comfort for all believers. Their final salvation does not depend on their uncertain obedience, but has its guarantee in the unchangeable purpose of God.”
– Louis Berkhof, Systematic Theology 
No Christian is without sin. Repentance and belief verify the authenticity of saving faith. Yet even a Christian that strives toward obedience can suffer doubts due to personal failure. The doctrine of election focuses the doubter on the “unchangeable purpose of God” and away from his “uncertain obedience,” the source of his fear. Holding onto the unchangeable purposes of God in election helps the Christian plagued by discouragement over sin.
Additionally, Christians discouraged by their sinful failures can be reminded of God’s final goal of election, the glorification of all things. John Murray describes this glorification:
“[Glorification] is a renewed cosmos, new heavens and new earth, that we must think of as the context of the believers’ glory, a cosmos delivered from all the consequences of sin, in which there will be no more curse but in which righteousness will have complete possession and undisturbed habitation.”
– John Murray, Redemption Accomplished and Applied 
Christians can help each other look beyond the discouragement of their sins and focus on what God will accomplish through election. He will undo the corrupting effects of sin and bring all believers into a new creation where no sin exists. Understanding this is a great encouragement. God will not fail to achieve His goal in election, regardless of what a believer fails to do. In that truth, a Christian can find ultimate comfort.
Evangelism is the primary good work God has ordained for His elect to minister to unbelievers. This is the means God uses to call the elect out of unbelief to saving faith. As mentioned earlier, “many are called but few are chosen” (Matthew 22:14). Therefore, not all unbelievers will respond positively to the ministry of evangelism. But this reality should not stop a believer from proclaiming Christ to all. As J.I. Packer comments, since God has not revealed who His chosen are, “We should view all persons that we meet as possibly being numbered among the elect.”
Evangelizing the lost is a clear directive for God’s chosen people. The apostle Peter writes,
“But you are a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a people for his own possession, that you may proclaim the excellencies of him who called you out of darkness into his marvelous light”
– 1 Peter 2:9
Believers are chosen to proclaim Christ to a fallen world so that the remaining number of God’s elect can hear and respond to the gospel. This proclamation is the essential means God’s people fulfill the disciple-making mandate of the Great Commission.
Some Christians remain unconvinced concerning evangelism, believing that the doctrine of election renders it unnecessary. After all, if God has already chosen some for salvation, why bother preaching?
For the answer to this objection, one need only consider Paul. This apostle is a prime example of one deeply rooted in the doctrine of election yet spending his life proclaiming the gospel to the unbelieving. In his final writing, Paul tells Timothy,
“Therefore I endure everything for the sake of the elect, that they also may obtain the salvation that is in Christ Jesus with eternal glory”
– 2 Timothy 2:10
Paul endured beatings, humiliation, rejection, and the constant threat of death in order to preach the gospel so the elect could hear and come to salvation.
Paul further demonstrates his understanding of election and evangelism during his ministry in Corinth. Wayne Grudem affirms,
“Election involves the preaching of the gospel and not a complacency that won’t preach due to the inevitability of the salvation of the elect. Paul exemplifies this in Corinth.”
– Wayne Grudem, Bible Doctrine 
Grudem is referring to Paul’s message from the Lord encouraging him to continue his work in the city after facing opposition from the Jews. The Lord tells Paul in a dream that He has many people in Corinth but does not reveal their identity. Paul responds by spending a year and a half in Corinth preaching the gospel and establishing the church there (Acts 18:1-11).
Paul’s understanding of the doctrine of election gave him confidence that his evangelistic ministry would result in the salvation of God’s elect. There is no hint of passivity regarding the inevitable salvation of the elect in Paul. The apostle clearly understood that God’s means of bringing His people in Corinth to salvation involved preaching the gospel.
The Doctrine of Election and the Christian’s Worship
Finally, the doctrine of election teaches the Christian that the ultimate reason for his salvation is God’s glory. Growth in Christ-like character and ministry to others are significant aspects of God’s predestinating work, but they are secondary. God’s foremost desire is to reveal His glory to all creation, resulting in His creation worshiping Him. All creation comes from God and is for God (Colossians 1:16). Thus, the doctrine of election shows that worshiping God is the highest priority for the Christian.
Chosen to Worship
Focusing solely on the benefits of election and not on God Himself can stifle worship. The Christian becomes preoccupied with benefits rather than the Benefactor. The doctrine of election corrects this subtle error and refocuses the Christian on God’s purpose for his life.
Paul writes in his letter to the Ephesians,
“In him we have obtained an inheritance, having been predestined according to the purpose of him who works all things according to the counsel of his will, so that we who were the first to hope in Christ might be to the praise of his glory.”
– Ephesians 1:11-12
In this passage and its immediate context, Paul acknowledges the vast benefits a Christian receives from election including: an inheritance, every spiritual blessing, adoption into God’s family, forgiveness of sins, knowing the mystery of Christ, and the indwelling Holy Spirit.
Yet all these gifts serve a greater purpose, to bring praise to God. A Christian should not diminish the value of these benefits, but he should also see them as secondary to the ultimate purpose of worshipping the God who gave them. J.I. Packer states,
“Every spiritual blessing flows to him from God’s electing decree (Eph. 1:3ff.). The knowledge of his election, therefore, should teach him to glory in God, and God only (1 Cor. 1:31), and to give him the praise that is his due (Rom. 11:36). The ultimate end of election is that God should be praised.”
– J.I. Packer, “Election,” New Bible Dictionary 
Like a body trying to function without proper nutrition, a Christian’s worship is anemic without understanding that God elects primarily to reveal His glory. The doctrine of election roots salvation entirely in God’s glory from beginning to end. It reminds the Christian he had nothing to do with his election, that God chose him to be “to the praise of His glory” (Ephesians 1:12). Thus, the doctrine of election instructs the Christian that his proper relationship to God is that of a creation chosen to worship his Creator.
Election turns the Christian away from self-centeredness to gaze upon God, the focal point of all existence. Since worship is the goal of all creation (Revelation 4:11), there is no truth more relevant to the Christian than the doctrine of election. Election points the Christian to the purpose of life, to bring God praise and glory.
The doctrine of election is a pastoral doctrine. Its implications are entirely practical as it is the foundation of Christian character development, ministry, and worship. Pastors who neglect teaching election fail to see the doctrine’s wide-ranging impact upon all of Christian life and risk suppressing the means God uses to grow a Christian in character, ministry, and worship.
The doctrine of election is not intended to cause division nor disunity; therefore, pastors should put aside this fear. Instead, a proper understanding of election causes Christians to become more like Christ in their humility, thankfulness, joy and obedience.
Additionally, there should be no fear that a right understanding of election will stifle evangelism. Christians who understand this doctrine know they have been chosen by God to proclaim the gospel to whoever they can, since this proclamation is God’s means of bringing salvation to the elect.
Finally, Christians armed with the knowledge of election understand their ultimate purpose in life is to worship God and bring Him glory. There is nothing more relevant for the church today than to reexamine the doctrine of election and discover all the marvelous works God intends to accomplish in His people through this great truth.
Berkhof, Louis. Systematic Theology. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1996.
Grudem, Wayne. Bible Doctrine, ed. Jeff Purswell. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1999.
Klooster, F.H.. “Elect”, International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, 4 vols., ed. Geoffrey W. Bromiley. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1982.
Murray, John. Redemption Accomplished and Applied. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1955.
Packer, J.I.. Concise Theology. Wheaton, IL: Tyndale House Publishers Inc., 1993.
________. “Election”, New Bible Dictionary, ed. J.D. Douglas and others. Wheaton, IL: Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., 1982.
________. Evangelism and the Sovereignty of God, Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2008.
Reid, W.S.. “Election”, International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, 4 vols., ed. Geoffrey W. Bromiley. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1982.
 J.I. Packer, Concise Theology (Wheaton, IL: Tyndale House Publishers Inc., 1993), 150.
 Wayne Grudem, Bible Doctrine, ed. Jeff Puswell (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1999), 282.
 Louis Berkhof, Systematic Theology (Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1996), 114.
 Grudem, 292.
 J.I. Packer, Concise Theology, p.39
 Packer, 149-150.
 F.H. Klooster, “Elect”, International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, 4 vols., ed. Geoffrey W. Bromiley (Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1982), 2:54-55.
 W.S. Reid, “Election”, International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, 4 vols., ed. Geoffrey W. Bromiley (Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1982), 2:56-57.
 Grudem, 284.
 Berkhof, 114.
 John Murray, Redemption Accomplished and Applied (Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1955), 79.
 Packer, 151.
 Grudem, 286.
 J.I. Packer, “Election”, New Bible Dictionary, ed. J.D. Douglas and others (Wheaton, IL: Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., 1982), 317.
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